艺术家Raul Marroquin

[2009/02/19 05:14 | 分类: Dutch Media Search | by lizhenhua ]
Raul Marroquin
Raul Marroquin was born in Bogota, Colombia, in 1948 and has lived in the Netherlands since 1971.
He has worked with film, video and photography as well as installations.
He is considered one of the pioneers of video art in the Netherlands. In the early 70s while been a student at the Jan van Eyck Academie in Maastricht he published Fandangos, one of the first artists magazines in the world that included many of the Fluxus and conceptual artist of that period.
In 1980 he produced a The Link his first, live, satellite, interactive project connecting Manhattan Cable and Amsterdam cable television. Since 1991 he has produced the Hoeksteen Live! (radio and television). He lectures in universities and art academies in several European countries, North and South America and contributes with articles and essays in several special interest magazines both hard copy and on-line. His work form part of public and private collections all over the world.
Raul Marroquin1948年出生于哥伦比亚波哥大,自1971年起在荷兰生活。
他创作电影、视频和摄影以及装置作品。
他被认为是荷兰录像艺术的先锋。早在70年代,当他还是荷兰马斯特里赫特Jan van Eyck 学院的学生,他就发表了世界上的第一本艺术家杂志Fandangos,其中囊括了那个时期众多的激浪派艺术家和概念艺术家。
在1980年,他制作了他的第一个卫星直播的互动项目The Link(连接),这个项目连接了曼哈顿有线电视和阿姆斯特丹有线电视。自1991年以来,他已制作了Hoeksteen Live!(电台和电视台)。他在几个欧洲国家、北美和南美的大学和艺术院校进行讲座,并在某些独特领域的杂志撰写文章和散文(纸质版和网络版)。他的作品成为了全世界的公共和私人收藏的一部分。
http://www.mediamatic.net/person/4570/en
Visual Arts and Customized Programming
视觉艺术与定制节目编排
Myths and Realities of the Situation
现状的秘密与真相
•  By Raul Marroquin 1986
As the number of artists interested in working with electronic media increases continuously in The Netherlands as in all European countries, many questions arise about the phenomenon itself and also about the artist's position in the transitional phase that both culture and society are going through. All of these many issues can be summarized into two basic questions:
- What are the real possibilities for visual artists within the electronic media?
- What is their role in today's information society?
随着许多欧洲国家包括荷兰的艺术家越来越多地运用电子媒体,出现了很多关于这个现象本身的问题,也有问题旨在探讨在文化和社会的过渡时期中艺术家的立场。我们可以将其归纳为两个基本问题:
-对视觉艺术家来说,电子媒体为他们提供了怎样的可能?
-这些可能对当今信息社会有何作用?

In order to analyze and evaluate such matters, it is important to go beyond the limitations imposed by the art world structures and consider all aspects attached to the transitional period, mentioned above.
为了分析和评估这些问题,我们有必要超越艺术结构所带来的限制,并考虑上述过渡时期的各个方面。
The implication of the transition from a second wave industrialized society to a third wave information
第二波工业社会向第三波信息社会过渡的含义
When dealing with areas of rapid change such as communication and electronics it is clear that using these advanced facilities is virtually pointless within the context of a consumer industrialized society, because they are in fact, the vocabulary of a new era. Culture obviously is no exception to the rule and because of this, it must confront the reconceptualization of its role in today's society.
谈到通信和电子等领域的快速变化,这些先进的设施对于消费工业化社会来说,显然是毫无意义的,事实上,它们是属于新时代的事物。对文化来说也是如此,因此在当今社会中文化面临着对其角色的重新定义。

The present situation within a cultural frame work
当今文化框架下的现状

In this dying industrial civilization, culture and art have acquired a meaning which is totally different from the one they had in previous eras. The advent of a new civilization naturally demands a new approach to culture within the boundaries imposed by this new cycle.
In order to define such a meaning, it is important not only to consider the innovations that are pan of this new period but also the conditions in which they can be used, according to the community's needs and expectations. In the case of culture, the question boils down to the way in which all communication facilities can be used to achieve the best results while encouraging a dialogue between artists and their audiences. Unfortunately such issues are not even considered by the cultural establishment; as Marshal Mcluhan puts it: In the name of progress, our official culture is striving to force the new media to do the work of the old.
工业文明在逐渐消退,而文化和艺术获得了完全不同于以往时代的新含义。新文明的出现,使得我们需要一种方法来定义这个新时期的文化。
为了找到这种定义,我们不仅要考虑这个时期的创新,也要根据社会的需求和期望,来考虑它们适用的条件。对于文化来说,这个问题可以归结为,什么方法能让所有的传播手段实现艺术家与观众之间的完美对话。不幸的是,文化机构从未考虑过这些问题;正如Marshal Mcluhan所说:我们的官方文化以进步的名义,努力迫使新媒体做旧媒体的工作。

Art as commodity
艺术商品

In most pans of the Western World, museums and institutions alike, continue to operate within 19th century structures, in which media (film, audio, video etc.) cannot be located clearly and are regarded simply as unimportant sidelines. Thus they lack the commodity status of other more conventional disciplines such as painting, sculpture and graphics.
At best, time-based disciplines are regarded by cultural administrators as extensions of painting and sculpture and not as media in their own right. They are generally 'legitimized' by transforming them into installations, a new form of decorative electronic wallpaper, presented in 'artistically' reshaped hardware. Such a compromise can only be described as a return to the stone age with the art establishment acting as a 'Living Fossil'. More and more its function has been limited to that of an archive with no influence whatsoever on the way in which contemporary civilization is being shaped.
对大多数的西方机构来说,例如博物馆和研究所,他们仍然在19世纪的体制下工作,而新媒体(电影、音频、视频等)没有得到明确的定位并被轻易地视为不重要的边缘。因此,它们缺乏其他较为传统的学科,如绘画、雕塑和图形,所具备的商品地位。
基于时间的媒体最多被文化管理者视为对绘画及雕塑的补充,而非具备自身特征的媒体。它们通常被当作装饰性的电子墙纸,从而“合法化”地转化为装置,以“艺术”改良硬件的方式展出。艺术机构像“活化石”一样,这种妥协只能被称为向石器时代的倒退。新媒体的功能越来越局限于档案的作用,对正在形成的现代文明却没有任何影响力。

Redefining the role of art in today's society
当今社会艺术作用的重新定义

Within this sterile cultural panorama, the redefinition of art and the artist's place in the community requires rapid steps towards the artist's direct participation, not only in the creative aspects of production and programming, but in the entire process of regulating communication.
Taking such a standpoint demands a new approach to the idea of what an artist is. The issue is not only the one of becoming involved with technology, but also the social, political and economical implications of this involvement.
面对这种贫瘠的文化环境,要重新界定社会中的艺术和艺术家,促使我们研究艺术家的直接参与,不仅包括节目编排的创意部分,也包括传播规范化的全过程。
以这样的角度看问题,要求我们用一种新方法来看待艺术家。这个问题不仅与技术相关,也与技术带来的社会影响、政治影响和经济影响有关。

The different possibilities at present
目前的几种可能性

The combination of basic tools such as satellite and cable offers a considerable range of possibilities for programming; these are the ideal means for developing what is now described as Customized Programmation, which can be targeted at specialized audiences, not only on a local or national level, but potentially on a global scale. Standardized programming is increasingly threatened by all forms of customized programming which are better at serving the demands of a pluralistic society and are no longer interested in the information imposed by the communication monopolies, but only in what they regard to be specifically of interest to themselves.
Circulation of daily newspapers in the U.S. has decreased from 63 million in 1973 to 43 million in 1983. Simultaneously there has been a virtual explosion of mini magazines, newsletters and other publications all with continuously increasing circulations. With the appearance of new, fast and cheaper printing processes, political, religious and cultural groups can easily publish and distribute their own publications.
It is the same story with the electronic media. ABC, CBS and NBC (the major American networks) are being confronted with big audience losses because of the appearance of new, specialized networks (news, music, sports) and local cable companies. Domestic video recorders, not only allow viewers to record TV programs by means of tuning devices, they disrupt programming and also broaden the viewers' choice by the additional possibility of the wide range of software available from video rental shops. In addition, the relatively low cost cameras that can be used with the VCR transform the consumer into a prosumer (Consumer-Producer) who can then realize her or his own programming.
一些基本工具的结合,如卫星电视和有线电视,为节目编排提供了多种可能性;这些都是发展“定制节目”的理想手段,它可以针对专门的观众,不仅是针对地方或国家级观众,也可以针对全球范围内的观众。标准化的节目日益被各种形式的定制节目所威胁,而定制节目更好地满足了多元化社会的需求,它不再关注被传播垄断的资讯,而是关注吸引观众的特定内容。
美国的报纸发行量,已经从1973年的6300万下降至1983年的43万美元。同时涌现了许多迷你杂志、新闻消息和其他出版物,它们的发行量都在不断增加。随着新兴的、快速的和更廉价的印刷方式出现,政治、宗教和文化团体可以轻松地出版和传播自己的出版物。
电子媒体也是如出一辙。ABC,CBS和NBC (美国主要电视网络)正面临着巨大的观众流失,因为新兴的、专门的电视频道(新闻、音乐、体育)和当地有线电视公司正大量涌现。家用录像机不仅中断了电视节目,让观众利用调谐装置录制电视节目,还扩大了观众的选择,录影带出租店为其提供了更多可用的软件和可能性。此外,成本相对较低的摄影机与录像机的结合,让消费者摇身一变成为消费者生产者(prosumer),他们能制作属于自己的节目。
Audience development
观众拓展
Everyone involved in communication is well aware of the importance attached to audience development; it is a concept that communication monopolies have been dealing with for a long time although only on a commercial basis and exclusively geared toward 'mass audiences'.
The situation differs in the case of customized programming and one of the first requirements for dealing with it is the development of a new audio-visual language to help identify the new media. This is analogous to the need which existed for the creation of a newspaper vocabulary (lay out, typography etc.) that differed from the one used for books. Hence, there is a demand for a language in which analogue, digital and live components are evenly incorporated to give a new face to all new forms of programming.
Theoretical background of such a new approach in viewing and programming is an integral part of audience development. Programming in itself is not enough, particularly in the early stages; audience development is an activity that requires patience and dedication. Potential audiences must be kept up to date on the existing possibilities by every available means; newspaper and magazine articles, conferences/debates, conventions etc.; always staning from a generalized point of view rather than a specialist one (despite the fact that customized programming is not aimed at general audiences but at specialized ones).
Producing and programming within today's structures, means operating in mobile networks instead of in pyramid-like hierarchies. This means networks that are coordinated and then come together for the final stages of the production and broadcasting: teams where concept is as important as transportation. Within such enlarged structures, issues like copyright and authorship must be thoroughly reviewed. These are concepts totally integrated within consumerism; as new technologies and ideologies enter the arena, the subject becomes controversial, especially in those cases when individual creativity is overridden by collective efforts.
传播行业的每个人都清楚观众拓展的重要性;传播垄断多年来采用了这个概念,但通常只在商业基础上针对“大众”进行拓展。
对定制节目来说,观众拓展的情况则有所不同,首先,为了更好地识别新媒体,我们需要拓展新的视听语言。这与我们对报纸语言(设计,排版等)的需要是类似的,而非对书籍的那种需要。因此,我们需要一种类似的语言,使得电视的数字化和直播特征,能在所有新节目的形式中有所展现。
这种观赏与节目编排的新手段的理论背景,构成了观众拓展的主要部分。节目编排只着眼于自身是不够的,尤其是在初期阶段;受众拓展是一个需要耐心和付出的过程。我们必须用现有的手段和可能去接近潜在的观众群;报纸和杂志的文章,会议、辩论、协议等总是从大众的观点来看问题,而回避了某些特定的视角(尽管事实上定制节目并不是针对普通观众的,而是针对特殊观众的) 。
在如今的传播结构下制作和编排节目,意味着以移动网络的方式传播,而不是以金字塔的方式进行等级传播。这意味着网络能够彼此协调,从而达成制作和广播的最终目的:观念与传递兼收并蓄的结合。在这种扩张的结构里,版权和著作权的问题必须得到彻底审查。这些观念充分整合了消费主义;随着新技术和新的意识形态出现,尤其是当个人创造力被集体力量所压制的时候,这一问题便备受争议。

Financing customized programming
定制节目的经济
On top of the wide range of advertisement possibilities opened up by local and special interest programming, there is a considerable number of alternative options in the fields of research and experimentation. For instance, some universities which are at present suffering from cutbacks in government support and private sponsorship, now work jointly with both government and private enterprise in research and development of fields such as electronics, telecommunications, bio-engineering, etc. Similar options are feasible for programmers where government bodies and private interest can work as equal partners with communicators, profiting from each other's knowledge and capabilities.
In this way, the stiff structures of official support and private patronage of the arts and sciences can be upgraded to a more egalitarian level.
地方节目和特殊节目带来了广泛的广告机会,于是针对此领域的研究和实验层出不穷。例如,一些大学目前正面临政府和私人资助的削减,它们与政府和民营企业工作合作,研究并开发电子、通讯、生物工程等领域。对某些节目来说,如果政府机构和私人企业能成为平等的传播者,在知识和能力上互惠互利,类似的研究机会也就更多了。
这样,艺术与科学在官方支持和私人赞助方面的僵化结构,就可以升级到更为平等的水平。

Customization
节目定制
It's clear by now that the mass media can no longer cope with today's communication load while still providing the variety required by today's civilization. As Alvin Toffler describes it in his book Third Wave: The future of television is the individeo, narrowcasting addressed to a single individual at a time.
Like domestic video, cable casting and computers, interactive telecommunication encourages passive audiences to become active participants of today's electronic creative process.
Satellites are the latest magic component for customized programming. In combination with cable, home satellite will allow audiences to customize their own programming. Telecommunications today are no longer in the hands of the superpowers (many nations and private concerns have their own satellites) the market is a very competitive one; the cost of satellite time has decreased so much that experts can now talk in terms of Distance Independent Communication. Because of this it is now possible to envisage temporary networks for special interest programming. By selecting whatever is most suitable for a particular type of audience, programmers will be able to choose from a wide range of possibilities on a global basis. This can be delivered instantly to subscribers via cheap fibre optics, which are at present replacing the expensive copper wire cable.
This new global communication net breaks through all geopolitical barriers. In today's structures, it is impossible to build communication frontiers. Voice of America broadcasting to Eastern Europe is an example of this as is the appearance of Transnational Nets (TNets), Music Box, Sky Channel, Europe TV etc.
A new term has entered the vocabulary of communications: Information Sovereignty.
如今的大众媒体显然已不能胜任目前的传播负荷,同时也要为大众提供文化的多样性。正如Alvin Toffler在他的书“第三次浪潮”中说到:未来的电视是独立电视,每次只为独立的观众进行窄播。
比如国内的视频、有线电视和电脑、互动电子通信,都鼓励被动的受众成为当今电子创作过程的积极参与者。
卫星电视是定制节目最神奇的部分。实现了与有线电视的结合,家用卫星将使观众能够定制他们自己的节目。当今的电信已经脱离了超级权威(许多国家和私人都有自己的卫星)的控制,其市场是非常有竞争力的;卫星时间的成本已大幅减少,专家称之为远距离独立通信。正因为如此,我们可以设想定制节目的临时网络。为某一特定受众选择最适合他们的内容,节目制作者在全球范围内具有多样的选择余地。这些节目可通过廉价的光纤即时传递给用户,而现在光纤取代了昂贵的铜线电缆。
这种新的全球通信网突破了所有的地缘政治障碍。在今天的体制下,我们无法构筑通信边界。美国之音向东欧广播则表明了跨国网络(TNets)、音乐盒频道、天空频道,欧洲电视台的涌现。
通信词汇里又多了一个新词:信息主权。
Direct participation of audiences in programming
观众在节目中的直接参与
Unlike prepackaged programming, live radio and television have always involved audiences in events taking place at a very special point in time. Participating in live programs via telephone is one of the oldest traditions and this kind of live programming has now been broadened by all the technical developments in the field of interactive communication.
Entire towns in Western Europe, North America and Japan, are already linked directly so cable subscribers can request information, book flights, hotel reservations or even participate directly in live shows.
Qube is an interactive system based in Colombus Ohio (US). It provides subscribers with 30 channels and a keyboard which can be used to react directly to debates, shows, interviews etc.
A town in Japan has an experimental system which includes a camera and a microphone attached to each subscriber's TV set thus enabling them to become programmers; newsreaders, announcers and interviewers often work in their homes instead of a studio.
In The Netherlands, Philips is developing a similar system. All these examples and other existing possibilities, must be considered when thinking of new forms or programming.
与预先录制的节目不同,现场直播的广播和电视总让观众在一个特定时刻参与进来。通过电话参加现场节目是最古老的传统之一,这样的现场直播节目已经被互动传播领域的所有技术发展扩大。
整个西欧的城镇,北美和日本,都已经被通信网连接在一起,这样有线电视用户可以咨询信息,预订机票,酒店预订,甚至直接参与直播节目。
Qube是一个总部设在俄亥俄州哥伦布(美国)的互动系统。它为用户提供30个频道和一个可用于直接与辩论、表演、采访等互动的遥控器。
日本的小镇有一个实验系统,其中有摄像头和麦克风与每个用户的电视机连接,使他们成为节目制作者;新闻主播、播音员和采访常常是在他们的家中进行而不是在工作室里进行。
在荷兰,飞利浦公司正在研制一种类似的系统。所有这些例子和其他现有的各种可能性,都会被考虑到新节目形式的构想中。
Measuring audience participation
观众参与度测量
In the present situation, it is impossible to measure audience response to any new form of programming using the codes imposed by mass communication. Rates and statistics simply can't work with the present structures. The information society is no longer a theoretical abstraction but a political and economical reality in which the problem is not to satisfy the majority. Instead, it are minorities who are becoming the issue, so new codes must be invented to measure their requirements.
The times when networks dictated what was to be watched and when, are over. It is impossible now to envisage Orwell's faceless civilization manipulated by mass communication. With the means available, the future offers opportunities for the creation of a new culture, rich in life styles and different approaches towards the meaning of existence, a very fertile ground for the creative work of an artist.
在目前的情况下,要用大众传播的标准去衡量任何新形式的节目观众反馈都是不可能的。收视率和数据与目前的结构不协调。信息社会已不再是一个抽象的理论,而是一个政治经济现实,它所关注的不再是满足多数人。相反,少数人正在成为新的关注点,因此我们必须找到新标准来衡量他们的要求。
由网络来决定电视的内容和播出时间的时代已经过去了。Orwell所说的被大众传播间接控制的文明将不复存在。利用现有的手段,未来将会给新文化的出现提供很多机会,这种文化具有丰富的生活方式,并用不同的手段去探索存在的意义,对艺术家的创作来说是一块极为肥沃的土壤。











Raul Marroquin was born in 1948 in Bogota, Colombia, and lives in Amsterdam. He attended the School of Fine Arts at La Universidad Nacional in Bogota and did postgraduate studies at the Jan van Eyck Academie in Maastricht. Marroquin's works have been exhibited globally and he is considered to be one of the pioneers of video art in the Netherlands, where he has lived since 1971. In his videos Marroquin combines lengthy excerpts from advertisements and popular American TV shows with acted scenes done in purposely low production quality. The resulting narratives emphasize their own artificiality and the degree to which we often perceive the simulated space of television as more real than 'real life.' Furthermore, Marroquin's pieces deal with surveillance and its implications for personal freedom in public and private spaces.
Raul Marroquin 1948年出生于哥伦比亚波哥大,现在荷兰阿姆斯特丹生活。他在波哥大国立大学美术学院学习,并在马斯特里赫特的Jan van Eyck学院攻读硕士学位。Marroquin的作品在全球展出,他被认为是荷兰录像艺术的先锋之一,他自1971年以来在荷兰生活。Marroquin在他的影片中大段摘录了广告和美国的流行电视节目,并将其与有意降低制作质量的表演场景结合在一起。这样的叙事强调了作品本身的虚构性,并揭示出我们将电视类似的场景看得比“真实生活”还要真实的程度。此外,Marroquin的作品也涉及监控及其对公共和私人空间的个人自由的影响。

In The Neutronics Greatest Hits, Marroquin takes on the genre of the music video as the carrier of his underlying critique of mass media. Intended as part of the programming for Marroquin's Amsterdam/New York satellite broadcast called The Link, the work is both a music video and a documentation of a live performance given by the concept band at the Mazzo club in Amsterdam. Here, ‘Greatest Hits’ consists of two songs, one called 'The Emperor Song', and the second, 'Maranas the Man.' And while they are wildly different in style, the former a New Wave electro number and the latter more of a dark, folksy ballad, both sing about the same subject, a legendary man named Juan Marañas. Marañas is a frequent hero in Marroquin’s universe, and here he appears once again, glorified as the emperor of Fandango land. Amidst captured scenes from television, scrolling texts and shots of the concert, a suited Marañas enters in both videos, gesturing in the dramatic style of a seasoned politician, though behind him is the absurd juxtaposition of a close-up of fruit. Marroquin uses the typology of the music video cunningly, for the repetition in the songs and images capitalize on the brainwashing capabilities of the media. While we can laugh at The Neutronics’ demands to 'accept him as your leader,' there is of course a dark cynicism to the message. The band members entertain, but dressed in black costumes and masked similarly to the Ku Klux Klan, we are challenged with the question of how easily we accept the authority of mass media. [Elaine. Ho]
在The Neutronics精选中,Marrouquin将音乐录影带这种媒体形态作为间接批判大众传播媒介的载体。作为Raul Marrouquin阿姆斯特丹/纽约卫星直播电视“连接”(The Link)的一部分,该作品包括了一部音乐录影带和一个概念乐队在阿姆斯特丹Mazzo俱乐部的现场演出记录。“精选集”里有两首歌,一首叫做“宋朝皇帝”,第二首是“Maranas人”。虽然两者的风格大相径庭,前者的音乐风格属于New Wave Electro number,而后者是比较阴郁的民谣,两首歌都是表现同一个主题,关于Juan Marañas的传奇故事。Marañas总是以英雄角色出现在Marrouquin的作品中,在这部作品中也是如此,他是Fandango Land的皇帝。在截取的电视场景,滚动字幕和音乐会的片段中,Marañas出现在这两个视频中,展现出一位经验丰富的政治家喜剧风格,而他身后却是怪异排列的水果特写。Marrouquin巧妙地运用音乐录影带形式,揭示了其歌曲的重复和媒体利用图像洗脑的能力。尽管我们可以嘲笑The Neutronics“接受他成为领袖”的要求,但作品中也不乏对这个现象的深刻嘲讽。乐队成员在演奏歌曲,但他们身穿黑色服装,并头戴着类似三K党的面具,问题在于,我们是多么轻易地接受了大众媒体的权威。 [Elaine. Ho]

Raul Marroquin is an artist based in Amsterdam and working in video, audio, performance, publishing and mixed-media. He will present documentation of several major projects - including The Link, a live interactive satellite cable melodrama, and The World's First T.V. Convention, a multimedia installation - as well as a temporary video installation piece.
Raul Marroquin是基于阿姆斯特丹的艺术家,主要创作视频、音乐、行为艺术、出版和混合媒体作品。他将会展出几个主要项目-包括连接(The Link),一部由卫星电视直播的情景剧,世界上第一部电视行业公约,多媒体装置-以及一个即时的影像装置作品。

"The Link is the title of one episode in a TV series about the political campaign of an eccentric millionaire living in exile in a South American paradise, Senor Juan Miguel Maranas y Maranas, who has set out to gain political control over the entire planet. The Link shows the philanthropic Juan Maranas trying to obtain the support of New York by saving the city from: Vampirism. The social-cultural context of Raul Marrouquin's involvement in TV is that of South America, where TV is perhaps even more consumer orientated than in the United States - a 24-hour-long brainwash. The basic principle of TV all over the world is commercial. There is no other form of TV."
“连接(The Link)的标题是来自于一部电视连续剧,剧情是一位自私的百万富翁的政治竞选,他在南美天堂Senor Juan Miguel Maranas y Maranas流亡,并将要得到统治整个地球的政治权利。连接(The Link)表现了好心的Juan Maranas试图将纽约从吸血鬼的手中拯救出来。Raul Marrouquin作品中所涉及的电视社会文化背景取材于南美洲,与美国相比,南美洲的电视更趋于消费者导向-24小时之久的洗脑。全世界的电视规则都是商业的。没有任何其他形式的电视节目。

His works:
http://www.marroquin.nl/
http://catalogue.montevideo.nl/artist.php?id=49
http://art-cube.blogspot.com/2007/12/raul-marroquin-selected-works.html

整理、翻译:丁燕萍(www.bjartlab.com)
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