艺术家Raul Marroquin

[2009/02/19 05:14 | 分类: Dutch Media Search | by lizhenhua ]
Raul Marroquin
Raul Marroquin was born in Bogota, Colombia, in 1948 and has lived in the Netherlands since 1971.
He has worked with film, video and photography as well as installations.
He is considered one of the pioneers of video art in the Netherlands. In the early 70s while been a student at the Jan van Eyck Academie in Maastricht he published Fandangos, one of the first artists magazines in the world that included many of the Fluxus and conceptual artist of that period.
In 1980 he produced a The Link his first, live, satellite, interactive project connecting Manhattan Cable and Amsterdam cable television. Since 1991 he has produced the Hoeksteen Live! (radio and television). He lectures in universities and art academies in several European countries, North and South America and contributes with articles and essays in several special interest magazines both hard copy and on-line. His work form part of public and private collections all over the world.
Raul Marroquin1948年出生于哥伦比亚波哥大,自1971年起在荷兰生活。
他被认为是荷兰录像艺术的先锋。早在70年代,当他还是荷兰马斯特里赫特Jan van Eyck 学院的学生,他就发表了世界上的第一本艺术家杂志Fandangos,其中囊括了那个时期众多的激浪派艺术家和概念艺术家。
在1980年,他制作了他的第一个卫星直播的互动项目The Link(连接),这个项目连接了曼哈顿有线电视和阿姆斯特丹有线电视。自1991年以来,他已制作了Hoeksteen Live!(电台和电视台)。他在几个欧洲国家、北美和南美的大学和艺术院校进行讲座,并在某些独特领域的杂志撰写文章和散文(纸质版和网络版)。他的作品成为了全世界的公共和私人收藏的一部分。
Visual Arts and Customized Programming
Myths and Realities of the Situation
•  By Raul Marroquin 1986
As the number of artists interested in working with electronic media increases continuously in The Netherlands as in all European countries, many questions arise about the phenomenon itself and also about the artist's position in the transitional phase that both culture and society are going through. All of these many issues can be summarized into two basic questions:
- What are the real possibilities for visual artists within the electronic media?
- What is their role in today's information society?

In order to analyze and evaluate such matters, it is important to go beyond the limitations imposed by the art world structures and consider all aspects attached to the transitional period, mentioned above.
The implication of the transition from a second wave industrialized society to a third wave information
When dealing with areas of rapid change such as communication and electronics it is clear that using these advanced facilities is virtually pointless within the context of a consumer industrialized society, because they are in fact, the vocabulary of a new era. Culture obviously is no exception to the rule and because of this, it must confront the reconceptualization of its role in today's society.

The present situation within a cultural frame work

In this dying industrial civilization, culture and art have acquired a meaning which is totally different from the one they had in previous eras. The advent of a new civilization naturally demands a new approach to culture within the boundaries imposed by this new cycle.
In order to define such a meaning, it is important not only to consider the innovations that are pan of this new period but also the conditions in which they can be used, according to the community's needs and expectations. In the case of culture, the question boils down to the way in which all communication facilities can be used to achieve the best results while encouraging a dialogue between artists and their audiences. Unfortunately such issues are not even considered by the cultural establishment; as Marshal Mcluhan puts it: In the name of progress, our official culture is striving to force the new media to do the work of the old.
为了找到这种定义,我们不仅要考虑这个时期的创新,也要根据社会的需求和期望,来考虑它们适用的条件。对于文化来说,这个问题可以归结为,什么方法能让所有的传播手段实现艺术家与观众之间的完美对话。不幸的是,文化机构从未考虑过这些问题;正如Marshal Mcluhan所说:我们的官方文化以进步的名义,努力迫使新媒体做旧媒体的工作。

Art as commodity

In most pans of the Western World, museums and institutions alike, continue to operate within 19th century structures, in which media (film, audio, video etc.) cannot be located clearly and are regarded simply as unimportant sidelines. Thus they lack the commodity status of other more conventional disciplines such as painting, sculpture and graphics.
At best, time-based disciplines are regarded by cultural administrators as extensions of painting and sculpture and not as media in their own right. They are generally 'legitimized' by transforming them into installations, a new form of decorative electronic wallpaper, presented in 'artistically' reshaped hardware. Such a compromise can only be described as a return to the stone age with the art establishment acting as a 'Living Fossil'. More and more its function has been limited to that of an archive with no influence whatsoever on the way in which contemporary civilization is being shaped.

Redefining the role of art in today's society

Within this sterile cultural panorama, the redefinition of art and the artist's place in the community requires rapid steps towards the artist's direct participation, not only in the creative aspects of production and programming, but in the entire process of regulating communication.
Taking such a standpoint demands a new approach to the idea of what an artist is. The issue is not only the one of becoming involved with technology, but also the social, political and economical implications of this involvement.

The different possibilities at present

The combination of basic tools such as satellite and cable offers a considerable range of possibilities for programming; these are the ideal means for developing what is now described as Customized Programmation, which can be targeted at specialized audiences, not only on a local or national level, but potentially on a global scale. Standardized programming is increasingly threatened by all forms of customized programming which are better at serving the demands of a pluralistic society and are no longer interested in the information imposed by the communication monopolies, but only in what they regard to be specifically of interest to themselves.
Circulation of daily newspapers in the U.S. has decreased from 63 million in 1973 to 43 million in 1983. Simultaneously there has been a virtual explosion of mini magazines, newsletters and other publications all with continuously increasing circulations. With the appearance of new, fast and cheaper printing processes, political, religious and cultural groups can easily publish and distribute their own publications.
It is the same story with the electronic media. ABC, CBS and NBC (the major American networks) are being confronted with big audience losses because of the appearance of new, specialized networks (news, music, sports) and local cable companies. Domestic video recorders, not only allow viewers to record TV programs by means of tuning devices, they disrupt programming and also broaden the viewers' choice by the additional possibility of the wide range of software available from video rental shops. In addition, the relatively low cost cameras that can be used with the VCR transform the consumer into a prosumer (Consumer-Producer) who can then realize her or his own programming.
电子媒体也是如出一辙。ABC,CBS和NBC (美国主要电视网络)正面临着巨大的观众流失,因为新兴的、专门的电视频道(新闻、音乐、体育)和当地有线电视公司正大量涌现。家用录像机不仅中断了电视节目,让观众利用调谐装置录制电视节目,还扩大了观众的选择,录影带出租店为其提供了更多可用的软件和可能性。此外,成本相对较低的摄影机与录像机的结合,让消费者摇身一变成为消费者生产者(prosumer),他们能制作属于自己的节目。
Audience development
Everyone involved in communication is well aware of the importance attached to audience development; it is a concept that communication monopolies have been dealing with for a long time although only on a commercial basis and exclusively geared toward 'mass audiences'.
The situation differs in the case of customized programming and one of the first requirements for dealing with it is the development of a new audio-visual language to help identify the new media. This is analogous to the need which existed for the creation of a newspaper vocabulary (lay out, typography etc.) that differed from the one used for books. Hence, there is a demand for a language in which analogue, digital and live components are evenly incorporated to give a new face to all new forms of programming.
Theoretical background of such a new approach in viewing and programming is an integral part of audience development. Programming in itself is not enough, particularly in the early stages; audience development is an activity that requires patience and dedication. Potential audiences must be kept up to date on the existing possibilities by every available means; newspaper and magazine articles, conferences/debates, conventions etc.; always staning from a generalized point of view rather than a specialist one (despite the fact that customized programming is not aimed at general audiences but at specialized ones).
Producing and programming within today's structures, means operating in mobile networks instead of in pyramid-like hierarchies. This means networks that are coordinated and then come together for the final stages of the production and broadcasting: teams where concept is as important as transportation. Within such enlarged structures, issues like copyright and authorship must be thoroughly reviewed. These are concepts totally integrated within consumerism; as new technologies and ideologies enter the arena, the subject becomes controversial, especially in those cases when individual creativity is overridden by collective efforts.
这种观赏与节目编排的新手段的理论背景,构成了观众拓展的主要部分。节目编排只着眼于自身是不够的,尤其是在初期阶段;受众拓展是一个需要耐心和付出的过程。我们必须用现有的手段和可能去接近潜在的观众群;报纸和杂志的文章,会议、辩论、协议等总是从大众的观点来看问题,而回避了某些特定的视角(尽管事实上定制节目并不是针对普通观众的,而是针对特殊观众的) 。

Financing customized programming
On top of the wide range of advertisement possibilities opened up by local and special interest programming, there is a considerable number of alternative options in the fields of research and experimentation. For instance, some universities which are at present suffering from cutbacks in government support and private sponsorship, now work jointly with both government and private enterprise in research and development of fields such as electronics, telecommunications, bio-engineering, etc. Similar options are feasible for programmers where government bodies and private interest can work as equal partners with communicators, profiting from each other's knowledge and capabilities.
In this way, the stiff structures of official support and private patronage of the arts and sciences can be upgraded to a more egalitarian level.

It's clear by now that the mass media can no longer cope with today's communication load while still providing the variety required by today's civilization. As Alvin Toffler describes it in his book Third Wave: The future of television is the individeo, narrowcasting addressed to a single individual at a time.
Like domestic video, cable casting and computers, interactive telecommunication encourages passive audiences to become active participants of today's electronic creative process.
Satellites are the latest magic component for customized programming. In combination with cable, home satellite will allow audiences to customize their own programming. Telecommunications today are no longer in the hands of the superpowers (many nations and private concerns have their own satellites) the market is a very competitive one; the cost of satellite time has decreased so much that experts can now talk in terms of Distance Independent Communication. Because of this it is now possible to envisage temporary networks for special interest programming. By selecting whatever is most suitable for a particular type of audience, programmers will be able to choose from a wide range of possibilities on a global basis. This can be delivered instantly to subscribers via cheap fibre optics, which are at present replacing the expensive copper wire cable.
This new global communication net breaks through all geopolitical barriers. In today's structures, it is impossible to build communication frontiers. Voice of America broadcasting to Eastern Europe is an example of this as is the appearance of Transnational Nets (TNets), Music Box, Sky Channel, Europe TV etc.
A new term has entered the vocabulary of communications: Information Sovereignty.
如今的大众媒体显然已不能胜任目前的传播负荷,同时也要为大众提供文化的多样性。正如Alvin Toffler在他的书“第三次浪潮”中说到:未来的电视是独立电视,每次只为独立的观众进行窄播。
Direct participation of audiences in programming
Unlike prepackaged programming, live radio and television have always involved audiences in events taking place at a very special point in time. Participating in live programs via telephone is one of the oldest traditions and this kind of live programming has now been broadened by all the technical developments in the field of interactive communication.
Entire towns in Western Europe, North America and Japan, are already linked directly so cable subscribers can request information, book flights, hotel reservations or even participate directly in live shows.
Qube is an interactive system based in Colombus Ohio (US). It provides subscribers with 30 channels and a keyboard which can be used to react directly to debates, shows, interviews etc.
A town in Japan has an experimental system which includes a camera and a microphone attached to each subscriber's TV set thus enabling them to become programmers; newsreaders, announcers and interviewers often work in their homes instead of a studio.
In The Netherlands, Philips is developing a similar system. All these examples and other existing possibilities, must be considered when thinking of new forms or programming.
Measuring audience participation
In the present situation, it is impossible to measure audience response to any new form of programming using the codes imposed by mass communication. Rates and statistics simply can't work with the present structures. The information society is no longer a theoretical abstraction but a political and economical reality in which the problem is not to satisfy the majority. Instead, it are minorities who are becoming the issue, so new codes must be invented to measure their requirements.
The times when networks dictated what was to be watched and when, are over. It is impossible now to envisage Orwell's faceless civilization manipulated by mass communication. With the means available, the future offers opportunities for the creation of a new culture, rich in life styles and different approaches towards the meaning of existence, a very fertile ground for the creative work of an artist.

Raul Marroquin was born in 1948 in Bogota, Colombia, and lives in Amsterdam. He attended the School of Fine Arts at La Universidad Nacional in Bogota and did postgraduate studies at the Jan van Eyck Academie in Maastricht. Marroquin's works have been exhibited globally and he is considered to be one of the pioneers of video art in the Netherlands, where he has lived since 1971. In his videos Marroquin combines lengthy excerpts from advertisements and popular American TV shows with acted scenes done in purposely low production quality. The resulting narratives emphasize their own artificiality and the degree to which we often perceive the simulated space of television as more real than 'real life.' Furthermore, Marroquin's pieces deal with surveillance and its implications for personal freedom in public and private spaces.
Raul Marroquin 1948年出生于哥伦比亚波哥大,现在荷兰阿姆斯特丹生活。他在波哥大国立大学美术学院学习,并在马斯特里赫特的Jan van Eyck学院攻读硕士学位。Marroquin的作品在全球展出,他被认为是荷兰录像艺术的先锋之一,他自1971年以来在荷兰生活。Marroquin在他的影片中大段摘录了广告和美国的流行电视节目,并将其与有意降低制作质量的表演场景结合在一起。这样的叙事强调了作品本身的虚构性,并揭示出我们将电视类似的场景看得比“真实生活”还要真实的程度。此外,Marroquin的作品也涉及监控及其对公共和私人空间的个人自由的影响。

In The Neutronics Greatest Hits, Marroquin takes on the genre of the music video as the carrier of his underlying critique of mass media. Intended as part of the programming for Marroquin's Amsterdam/New York satellite broadcast called The Link, the work is both a music video and a documentation of a live performance given by the concept band at the Mazzo club in Amsterdam. Here, ‘Greatest Hits’ consists of two songs, one called 'The Emperor Song', and the second, 'Maranas the Man.' And while they are wildly different in style, the former a New Wave electro number and the latter more of a dark, folksy ballad, both sing about the same subject, a legendary man named Juan Marañas. Marañas is a frequent hero in Marroquin’s universe, and here he appears once again, glorified as the emperor of Fandango land. Amidst captured scenes from television, scrolling texts and shots of the concert, a suited Marañas enters in both videos, gesturing in the dramatic style of a seasoned politician, though behind him is the absurd juxtaposition of a close-up of fruit. Marroquin uses the typology of the music video cunningly, for the repetition in the songs and images capitalize on the brainwashing capabilities of the media. While we can laugh at The Neutronics’ demands to 'accept him as your leader,' there is of course a dark cynicism to the message. The band members entertain, but dressed in black costumes and masked similarly to the Ku Klux Klan, we are challenged with the question of how easily we accept the authority of mass media. [Elaine. Ho]
在The Neutronics精选中,Marrouquin将音乐录影带这种媒体形态作为间接批判大众传播媒介的载体。作为Raul Marrouquin阿姆斯特丹/纽约卫星直播电视“连接”(The Link)的一部分,该作品包括了一部音乐录影带和一个概念乐队在阿姆斯特丹Mazzo俱乐部的现场演出记录。“精选集”里有两首歌,一首叫做“宋朝皇帝”,第二首是“Maranas人”。虽然两者的风格大相径庭,前者的音乐风格属于New Wave Electro number,而后者是比较阴郁的民谣,两首歌都是表现同一个主题,关于Juan Marañas的传奇故事。Marañas总是以英雄角色出现在Marrouquin的作品中,在这部作品中也是如此,他是Fandango Land的皇帝。在截取的电视场景,滚动字幕和音乐会的片段中,Marañas出现在这两个视频中,展现出一位经验丰富的政治家喜剧风格,而他身后却是怪异排列的水果特写。Marrouquin巧妙地运用音乐录影带形式,揭示了其歌曲的重复和媒体利用图像洗脑的能力。尽管我们可以嘲笑The Neutronics“接受他成为领袖”的要求,但作品中也不乏对这个现象的深刻嘲讽。乐队成员在演奏歌曲,但他们身穿黑色服装,并头戴着类似三K党的面具,问题在于,我们是多么轻易地接受了大众媒体的权威。 [Elaine. Ho]

Raul Marroquin is an artist based in Amsterdam and working in video, audio, performance, publishing and mixed-media. He will present documentation of several major projects - including The Link, a live interactive satellite cable melodrama, and The World's First T.V. Convention, a multimedia installation - as well as a temporary video installation piece.
Raul Marroquin是基于阿姆斯特丹的艺术家,主要创作视频、音乐、行为艺术、出版和混合媒体作品。他将会展出几个主要项目-包括连接(The Link),一部由卫星电视直播的情景剧,世界上第一部电视行业公约,多媒体装置-以及一个即时的影像装置作品。

"The Link is the title of one episode in a TV series about the political campaign of an eccentric millionaire living in exile in a South American paradise, Senor Juan Miguel Maranas y Maranas, who has set out to gain political control over the entire planet. The Link shows the philanthropic Juan Maranas trying to obtain the support of New York by saving the city from: Vampirism. The social-cultural context of Raul Marrouquin's involvement in TV is that of South America, where TV is perhaps even more consumer orientated than in the United States - a 24-hour-long brainwash. The basic principle of TV all over the world is commercial. There is no other form of TV."
“连接(The Link)的标题是来自于一部电视连续剧,剧情是一位自私的百万富翁的政治竞选,他在南美天堂Senor Juan Miguel Maranas y Maranas流亡,并将要得到统治整个地球的政治权利。连接(The Link)表现了好心的Juan Maranas试图将纽约从吸血鬼的手中拯救出来。Raul Marrouquin作品中所涉及的电视社会文化背景取材于南美洲,与美国相比,南美洲的电视更趋于消费者导向-24小时之久的洗脑。全世界的电视规则都是商业的。没有任何其他形式的电视节目。

His works:

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