中国实验短片的类别分析
Analysis of classification of China experimental short films

文/李振华
Text/Zhenhua Li

从1996年开始的中国录像艺术,通过邱志杰、吴美纯在杭州组织的大型录像艺术展,呈现了录像艺术从1990年开始到1996年之间发展的过程和成果,其中大量的艺术家如王功新、汪建伟、张培力、朱加等成为了新媒体运动的先驱。1999年在网络繁荣的催生下产生了大批的媒体艺术家,他们不再象以前的艺术家一样,只做平面的和静态的艺术作品如:油画、版画、雕塑、摄影等。技术在时间上的转换是迅速的,人开始习惯于接收电子邮件和不断的更新电脑的配置,以达到最好的操作和播放效果,这样的发展可以说是民间通过技术的影响,在经历了2000年网络泡沫破裂后的中国,从对这个新技术革命所带来的巨大成功与失败面前,开始了更加理性的发展。正在这个技术趋于成熟的时候,也带来了艺术家创作在手段上的完善。其中这些动态的作品受到了来自不同领域艺术家或者个人、公司的整体影响,大众社会对当代艺术的直接影响,其中艺术家的身份也发生了彻底的转变,如录像艺术家大部分是从事平面创作的,有着良好的美术基础。而在2000年以后出现的大部分作品,除了杨福东、邱志杰、乌尔善等人还有着美术基础,并间接的接受了电影美学的影响,而大部分艺术家或者作品更多的是来自非美术基础的艺术家、设计师、导演等,作品的风格更加接近电影,而不是当代艺术中的录像艺术,整个变化呈现出一个非常混乱、但是让人振奋的当代艺术群体和现象。
From the start of China video recording art in 1996, through a large-scale video recording art exhibition, which was organized by Zhijie Qiu, Meichun Wu in Hangzhou, presenting the developmental process and achievement of video recording art form 1990 to 1996, a mass of artists like Gongxin Wang, Jianwei Wang, Peili Zhang, Jia Zhu etc has become the pioneer of the new media movement. The prosperity of internet growth in 1999 has expedited the birth of a large quantity of media artists, unlike the former artists, they no longer only making two-dimensional or static art work like: Oil painting, print, sculpture, photography etc. Technology developed rapidly, people started to be accustomed to receive emails and renew computer configuration unceasingly to achieve the best operation quality and play effect, such development may say as the folk through the technology influence. Upon experiencing the burst of internet/dotcom bubble in 2000, facing the huge success and defeat which brought by this new technology revolution, China has started a more rational development. While the technology is merging to its mature stage, it also brings a more consummative method to artists in creating and making. The influence of these dynamic works came from artists in different domains or individuals, companies. The populace society also has a direct influence to the contemporary art, where a thorough transformation of the status of artists has also taking place. .For example majority of video recording artists, who is engaged in the two-dimensional creation, has good fine arts foundation. Later in 2000, except Fudong Yang, Zhijie Qiu, Shaner Wu etc has fine arts foundation, and has indirectly influenced by the esthetics of film, the majority of artists or works are come from the non- fine arts foundation pool, the designer, the director etc. The style of work is closer to movies, not video recording art in the contemporary art era. The entire transformation has brought an extremely chaotic, but inspiring and exciting colony and phenomenon of contemporary art.


八股歌作为互动影像的代表,他们的作品呈现出一种借助于当今网络发展的互动性的作品,他们通过不断研制作品中的技术方向,来改变作品本身的意义,如他们的作品《新闻联播》就是一个典型的例子,在非常随机的情况下获得的《新闻联播》电视节目采样,被他们正在实验的一个将视频转化为声音[舞曲]的过程之中诞生,并成为一个影响力非常大的作品,这个作品之中出现的新闻联播的人物,在一方面代表者政府的新闻媒体,另一个方面是自1976年以后的过去的一种回顾,这种穿插着政治意义、群体回忆的视觉素材,被八股歌改变成为几乎没有语言的舞曲的时候,其表情在停顿与重复之中充满了幽默,而音乐在解构了文字的意义以后成为现场的一个主体,当然他们是要强调这种声音和影像在关系上的倒置,但是在这个习惯了视觉文化的新社会之中,必然的被赋予了更多的意义。他们的网站更是如同一个充满了娱乐装置的虚拟游戏机,在上面可以通过不同的改变视觉因素的方法,改变声音效果,一个不可见的与可见的视觉之间的一种微妙的关系,构成了他们创作互动作品的基础。
8GG, as the representative of interactive video recording art, their work, with the aid of up to date internet/technology development, presents one kind of the interactive work. By through unceasingly research and development in the technical aspect of the work, they change the significance of the work. The work <> is a typical example. It obtained the <>television program sampling stochastically, then produced in the process of transforming video frequency to sound [dance music] experiment, and became a very influential work. In this work, the appearance of the news broadcast characters represents the government press in one hand, also reviews the past since 1976. When this visual work with alternating source of political significance and the community recollection has been transformed into dance music with hardly language, its humorously expression has been showed through stops and repetitions. The music overtaken the literal significance and latterly become the mainbody of the scene. Certainly, they want to emphasize the relational inversion of sound and phantom, but in the new society with customary visual culture, it would inevitably be endowed with more significance. Their website is like a hypothesized entertaining game station, through the change of vision factors and sound effect, a subtle visual relationship of none-observable and observable has been built, and this formed the foundation of their interaction work.

曹恺的作品《1969年之夏》在完成的初期就和他对历史与政治的一种追忆有关,这对所有出生在60-70年代的人都是一种虚幻的回忆,虽然我们听说过的文化大革命在70年代中期就已经结束了,但是对即使是90年代出生的人依旧产生着影响,一方面是对过去中国的这个文化运动的再发现,一方面是对国外在同一时间的历史产生的对中国年轻人的影响的反思,构成了这部经典的短片作品,通篇贯穿的是BRYAN ADAMS的《1969年之夏》,正是在1969年的夏天在WOODSTOCK的音乐节上如火如荼的演出现场,中国也正经历着一个如火如荼的文化革命的热潮。在作品之中的“领袖”被赋予了更当代的意义,一种是政治上的,通过毛的挥手所表达的领袖的意志。一种是商业上的流行文化的,通过不可见的演唱者所激励的观众的狂热场面。这种并置的关系和剪辑手法,将同一个时代的重要事件一一展示,具有非常强烈的视觉冲击和对整个70年代的反思,他的作品在简短的7分钟之内把人从现在的社会拉回到一个激情澎湃的历史时期,显然在全球化意识之下产生的对历史中全球的变迁,艺术家通过影像的手段在追述自我价值的同时对当代社会的发展根源,做了非常彻底的讽刺和批判。
Kai Cao’s work <> was born upon his historical and political recall in the initial period of completion. This is an imaginary recollection to all the 60’s-70’s nativity people. Although the Great Cultural Revolution had ended in the middle 70s, it still have the impact on the 90’s nativity people. This short film, with one aspect of rediscovering the past China Cultural Revolution and another aspect of reconsidering the historical overseas influence to China young people in the identical time, composed to classical short film work. <> by BRYAN ADAMS has tan through the entire work. While the WOODSTOCK music festival was performed ragingly in the summer 1969, China was also experiencing the upsurge of Great Cultural Revolution. "The leader" has been endowed with a more contemporary significance; one is in politics, through the Chairmen Mao’s waving hand to express the leader's will. Another one is in the commercial pop culture, expressed by the scene of frantic audience driven by the non-observable singer. This juxtaposition relation and editing technique demonstrated the important events in the identical era respective. It has an extremely intense visual impact and embodied the reconsideration to the entire 70s. In the brief 7 minutes, his work brings people from the present to the historical stirring period. Obviously, to see the global vicissitude in the human history with the stand of globalization consciousness, through the phantom expression, while the artist was recounted the self- value, it also has made the extremely thorough satire and the critique to the root of developed contemporary society.

郑云翰的作品《跟我唱》是一部反映东北矿工生活的MV,通过歌曲《我们工人有力量》阐述了工人这个阶级从过去到现在,社会地位与生活情况的变化,影片中大量的真实的记录片风格非常明显,通过矿山的全景到矿工面部的特写、劳作的场面,黑白的画面与冷硬的
剪辑、特效表达了一种北方的风格,艺术家对家乡的记忆与在北京都市生活现象产生了内在的对比,对一首曾经在60年代风靡全国的革命歌曲的视觉创作,艺术家开始通过歌曲中的社会变化影射当代社会中父背的遭遇,通过艺术家的视角和对当代文化的理解,呈现了一部不同于一般影像作品的意义和价值思考。利用记录片的拍摄手法,将真实、权利、价值几个重要的社会因素,通过一个发人深省的革命歌曲MV呈现出来。
Yunhan Zheng’s MV<< Sing with me>> reflects the life of Northeastern miners. It expounded the past and present of proletariat/working class, in the change of social status and life situation through the song <> /<>. A large number of genuine track records made it a film with very obvious documentary style. From the panorama of the mine to the miners’ facial features and their work scenes, through black-and-white picture theme, the cold and hard film editing method, special effect, it delivered the endemic North scene, the artist inherent comparison of the memory of hometown and life phenomenon in Beijing. By creating the vision to the revolutionary song that once swept the whole country in the 1960s, via the social transformation stated in the song, the artist obliquely reflected the elders’ encounters in this contemporary society. In the artist's aspect and his understanding of contemporary culture, the MV presents a meaning and value which is different from the general video works. Utilizing the shooting tactics of documentary film, several important social factors like truth, power/rights, value, have been presented through the MV of this provoking revolutionary song.

杨福东的作品《后房,天亮了!》这个被广泛推崇和传播的12分钟长短的影片,是通过传统的媒介16毫米胶片创作的,在美学上传承中国山水画的风格,淡淡的黑白影像和人物的一些静态动作和姿态、几乎没有任何对白的人物关系构成了影片。只有姿势动作、音乐的短片,通篇没有对话,静态的、动态的在影片中被混淆,有着默片的联想空间,从默片开始人对影片中人的动作感到惊异,《后房,天亮了!》在怪诞/无聊的动作之中展现了一个奇异的中国景象,其中出现的场景大多来自杭州和上海的园林和城市风景,和充满了影片的内在传统文人气质:柔弱、高傲、狂放、空虚。
Fudong Yang’s 12 minutes work <>is widely spread and recommended. It is created on the traditional medium 16 millimeters films, inherits the Chinese landscape painting style in esthetics aspect. The dim black and white picture, characters’ static movements and the postures, hardly any dialogue related characters, have constituted the movie. This short film with only posture, movement, music, without any conversation, confused static and dynamic state, has the imaginative space of silent film. From the start of silent film, people feel astonished by the characters’ movement. <>, unfolded a strange Chinese scene in the weird/bored movement, scenes which appeared mostly came from Hangzhou and Shanghai's botanical garden and the city scenery. The film filled with intrinsic traditional literati making: Delicate, arrogant, wild, and void.

欧宁和曹斐的作品《三元里》仿佛地理旅游般的作品,通过四个变换的主要视觉和电子音乐的舞曲节奏和律动,表现了潜藏在一个大环境变化中的广东珠三角地区的历史人文变化,以三元里的历史背景展开的与历史无关的新旧城市发展的变迁,人物在其中走动和动作,并不具有任何暗示,在不同阶层的人物的人文轨迹却保持了自我的状态,无论是大街上的年轻人,还是庙堂上的老年人依旧保持着任何大的经济变迁中中国人的特有生活方式,在这里是很难有任何历史的追述,本地人和外地人这个代表着文化差异的现象也随着建设被消解。一方面作品是实验的将VJ视觉因素和电子音乐相结合,另外就是作品在起点引述的人文地理因素,一直是作品通过视角贯穿的主题,呈现了丰富的城市人文地理现象。
Ning Ou and the Fei Cao’s work <> is like a geography traveling work, through the transformation of the four main visions and the rhythm of electronic music, it displayed a hidden historical and humanities change in a macroenvironment of Guangdong 珠三角 area. Using Sanyuanli as a historical background, showed the new and old urban development and vicissitude which is not related to the history. The characters’ movements did not have any hints. People from different classes maintained the self- condition in humanities path. Regardless young people on the street, or elders In the temple, they still maintained their unique Chinese's life style, in any economical transformation. It is very difficult to see any historical recounting here. The cultural difference between native and people from other places has been dispelled along with the architectures. This work experimentally unified the VJ vision factor and the electronic music, and moreover is the human geography factor which was quoted in the beginning. Through the point of view, the work has presented the city’s humanity and geographical phenomenon.

张丹和陈曼的商业另类作品《DANAM》集合了图片/移动影像/平面设计/三维设计等几个重要的现代设计元素制作的1分钟短片。作品并没有很强的指向性,与上述作品不同的地方是这类作品只强调制作给视觉带来的冲击力,属于纯视觉的范围并带有广告的特点,区别于传统的广告,这类影像往往有一些不能被大众接受的视觉元素,如裸露的、暴力的视觉画面。但是在个人化色彩、剪辑方面的特殊效果和时尚风格使这类短片为更多的年轻人接受。
Dan Zhang and Man Chen's 1 minute unconventional/eccentric commercial short film <>, contains the collection of important contemporary design elements like illustration /motional image /plane design / three-dimensional design etc. This work do not have a very strong directional approach, unlike the above works, it emphasizes on the visually impact purely belongs to the visual category and with the characteristic of advertisement. Distinct form from the traditional advertisement, this visual works normally contains some visual elements that can't be accepted by the mass, such as exposure, violence scenes. But its individualized color, special film editing effects and fashionable style make it more acceptable by youngsters.
important

周啸虎的作品《美丽的云团》通过动画人物,创作了一个悲情空间,通过动画人物创作和表述艺术家的思考与担忧,作为当代艺术的一个新的类别,将三维动画与记录采样结合的短片,创造了一个或者多个进深的视觉空间,将动画观众与观众的视觉重叠,自然的将观众设置成为被观看、窥视的视角,其中剪接遵循音乐和情节的引导,强制性的叙述了一个艺术家的内心故事。
Xiaohu Zhou’s work <>, through animation character, has created a pathos space. By creating animated character, the artist expresses his pondering thoughts and worries. As a new category of contemporary art, the short film combines three-dimensional animations and track record samplings, has created one or many visual spaces with depths. By overlapping the animation audience and audience's vision, it is naturally put the audience into a state of been watched and peeped. The editing has followed the music and the plot development, coercively narrated the artist’s innermost feeling.

其他还有很多短片在上述类别之外或者模糊类别的实验短片,包括邱志杰《乒乓》、乌尔善《开火》、石青《磨西镇》等更多的作品。
There are still many short films are not included in the above classification or experimental short films with vague classification, including ZhiJie Qiu’s<>, Er shan Wu’s <>, Qing shi’s <> and many other works.

注:
这里涉及的短片并不包括如录像艺术这样的大类别,因在90年代初期开始的录像艺术,也分类成为单屏录像/多屏录像和录像装置,这些分类的方法和以上的分类方法是有不同的,一个是题材分类,一个是物理性分类,从题材上录像艺术本来还是更偏重于当代艺术的观念,录像通过移动的画面,录像在这里是一种创作的手段和媒介,而从1996年之后发展起来的短片,却有着与电影更加接近的方式,或者说更加的跨媒介,其中受到社会技术和审美的影响比较严重,对艺术而艺术的解读被更广泛的延伸到社会学/地理/广告/历史等等范畴,而且形式还在不断的增加。通过当代艺术借助当代媒介的这种展出方式,在这个方面以上的分类也可以被套入录像艺术的范畴。
Note:
The listed short film here does not include such big category like video recording art. video recording art starts in the early 90s, it has classified into single track recording/The multi- track recording and the video recording installment, these classified methods and the above classified method is different, one is the theme classification, another is the physical property classification. From the theme of video recording art, it is more emphasized on the concept of the contemporary art. Recording through the motion picture, records here is a creation method and medium, but after 1996, short films are closer to movies’ approach, or even cross more medium. Technology and the esthetic has serious impact on it. Understanding of art has been widespread and has extended to the categories of sociology/Geography/Advertisement/History etc. Moreover, the presenting method is still increasing unceasing. Through the presenting ways of contemporary art with the aid of the contemporary medium, it can also been categories in the above video art recording classification aspect.

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